Wednesday, June 17, 2015

Jude did not quote a Book of Enoch

Jude did not say "it is written in the Book of Enoch" he said Enoch said something.  And he presents that something as a specific Prophecy of the Second Coming of Jesus. Jude 14-15
And Enoch also, the seventh from Adam, prophesied of these, saying, "Behold, the Lord cometh with ten thousands of his saints, to execute judgment upon all, and to convince all that are ungodly among them of all their ungodly deeds which they have ungodly committed, and of all their hard speeches which ungodly sinners have spoken against him."
Paul once quotes Jesus as saying something The Gospels don't record in Acts 20:25.  Not every quotation is something found earlier in Scripture.  Jude as an Apostle may have been given a special Revelation about Enoch.  Or it may be a known Prophecy of Enoch from Antiquity that The Holy Spirit made sure Jude wrote down just before the Canon was closed.

What's in the so called Book of Enoch or First Enoch doesn't exactly match what Jude said.  It varies in different translations of Enoch, but in none is the context actually a Prophecy of The Messiah.  The first Chapter of Enoch includes a similar saying in a prophecy in the first chapter, but presents it's fulfillment as happening within the events documented in that book, in about chapter 14.

Now you could argue that the variations in the expression are no different from how New Testament quotations of the Old Testament seem to have variations (which I believe Christian copiers conformed the Septuagint to) or Deuteronomy expressing The Ten Commandments differently.  Or that the Book of Enoch has gone through scribal errors since our main text of it is Ehtiopian.  But the Ethiopic texts were preserved by Christians who did consider it canon, they'd have an investment in wanting this to match Jude.

BTW there are some variations in how Enoch's chapter divisions are handled.  In the 1880s translation this quote is the entirety of Chapter 2.
Behold, he comes with ten thousands of his saints, to execute judgment upon them, and destroy the wicked, and reprove all the carnal for everything which the sinful and ungodly have done, and committed against him.
In the 1917 translation it is verse 9 of the first chapter.
And behold! He cometh with ten thousands of ⌈His⌉ holy ones
To execute judgement upon all,
And to destroy ⌈all⌉ the ungodly:

And to convict all flesh
Of all the works ⌈of their ungodliness⌉ which they have ungodly committed,
And of all the hard things which ungodly sinners ⌈have spoken⌉ against Him.
I don't know why that Copy/Pasted that way.

More recently scholars have insisted both these are wrong.
"Behold, he will arrive with ten million [ten thousand times a thousand] of the holy ones in order to execute judgment upon all. He will destroy the wicked ones and censure all flesh on account of everything that they have done, that which the sinners and the wicked ones committed against him".-James H. Charlesworth, ed., The Old Testament Pseudepigrapha, Volume 1: Apocalyptic Literature and Testaments (New York, NY: Doubleday, 1983).
I have not yet been able to verify if the quote in question is even attested among the Dead Sea Scrolls Aramaic manuscripts of Enoch.   But the DSS discovery did happen between 1917 and 1983.  So that could be a factor in Charlesworth's differences.  And I notice that it is the least similar to Jude of the three variations.  Suggesting maybe the Ethiopians tried to conform it to Jude as much as they could.

Now that Jude says "The Lord" not "he" isn't a big deal.  But Jude has no reference to destroying wicked ones.  Jude makes clear the ones He will come with are Saints, resurrected believers,  Enoch doesn't directly contradict that, but plenty interpret the context in Enoch as describing Angels.

What they do have in common is more then enough to make me doubt it's a coincidence.  Satan wanted a kernel of Truth in this massive lie he constructed.

But First Enoch gets plenty wrong.

First Enoch has only 200 Angels fall in it's depiction of the Genesis 6 events, who later get chained in the Abyss.  Revelation 9 I firmly believe reveals at least 200 Million are imprisoned there.  200 Million fallen angels are used in Second Enoch/Slavonic Enoch/Book of Secrets of Enoch, the one no one thinks Jude quoted.  But that is in reference to a heretical Pre-Adamic fall of Satan, called there Satanel.

Also it's because of the Book of Enoch everyone thinks of Watchers (Grigori in Aramaic) as a term for a type of Angel is inherently bad, that they're fallen angels.  But the only time The Bible has an Angel called a Watcher it is a good Angel in Daniel 4.  Doesn't mean it's impossible that some fallen angels once held that same position, and I could certainly see a fallen angel wanting to claim to be the same Angel as Daniel 4.  But I find it interesting how Enoch is the opposite of The Bible here since it doesn't seem to have any good Watchers, Michael and Gabriel and Uriel are not called by that term and seem much higher ranked.

Speaking of them.  I find it interesting that the Old and New Testaments are consistent in only having two named Angels.  (contrary to popular views of Isiah 14, I don't think we know Satan's personal name).

Daniel introduced the idea of naming Angels, Gabriel in chapters 8 and 9, and Michael in 10-12.  The Book of Enoch and other inter-testamental apocrypha used those two names and added many more, often trying to keep a consistent pattern of ending the names with El.

But The New Testament, in-spite of how much skeptics claim Christianity simply evolved naturally out of the development of Hellenistic Judaism, or skeptics and certain believers both insisting the NT authors must have been repeatedly referencing Enoch.  Never uses any of the other Angel names, only Michael and Gabriel.  And the New Testament endorsements of those names are scattered across three different books.  At least 8 different Authors writing 27 books, plenty of appearances of unnamed angels.  But none of those Enochian Angel names are ever used.  I consider that a wonderful testimony to the consistently of Scripture.  But it's undermined when people want to make Enoch quasi-canonical.

The Book of Enoch also confuses the Lake of Fire and the Abyss.

The Book of Enoch also defines the Moon as being a Female entity.  This is further proof of how influenced it is by Greek Pagan and/or Philosophical thought.

The Hebrew word for the Moon is Yerach/Jerah, strong number 3394, it ends with Het/Chet not with Heh, it is grammatically Masculine.  It is also the name of one of the sons of Joktan in Genesis 10, which further proves it's a male name because Old Testament genealogies usually don't list females.  Another Hebrew word associated with the Moon is Kodesh, strong number 2320 is also grammatically masculine.

Thinking of the Moon as feminine rather then masculine is unique to the Greeks and the Romans who copied the Greeks (and Etruscans of northern Italy).  Linking the Moon to Pheobe, Selene, Artemis, Hecate, Diana, Luna, Trivia ect.

Everywhere else the pagan cosmologies either have both as male like the Sumerian cosmology (Ningal exists as a secondary moon goddess, but her only purpose is to be Nana's consort) and Egypt.  Or the Moon is Masculine while the Sun is feminine, like in Japan with Amatersu and Tsukuyomi, or the Germanic/Norse with Mon and Sunna (who were the basis for Tolkien's Tilion and Arien).  And from what I've read it was the same among the Arabs, though the "Allah is a Moon god" stuff is misleading with some bad scholarship..

The Hebrew Bible uses masculine words to refer to both the Sun (Shamash) and Moon.  The Pagan Canaanites and others around Israel that used essentially the same language, used the exact same name The Israelites did for the Moon but a feminine one for the Sun.

The Greek New Testament uses the Greek word for the moon which happens to be Feminine, Selene.  But the Hebrew is what I will consider God's original intent, if He intended us to think of them as having genders at all.

Still the NT authors could have easily made a masculine form of Selene if they wanted to, like Seleno or Selenos, like how they used Ge rather then Gaea for the Earth..  So for that reason I'm certain gender doesn't matter because the Sun and Moon are inanimate objects, not sentient beings.

Indeed whenever a pronoun is used of The Moon in The Bible it's "it" not he or she.  Like in Job 25:5 and 31:26.

The KJV adds "her" to Isaiah 13:10 and Ezekiel 32:7, but that is not in the Hebrew text, it shows how the translators were influenced by Roman thought.  Same with Matthew 24:29 and Mark 13:24, there the Greek word rendered "her" is really gender neutral.

The Book of Enoch was lost to everyone but the Ethiopians for over a Millennium, I don't think God would let that happen to something that was authentically His Word.

And since I know Enoch is popular with certain conspiracy theorists, I want to point out how it was devoted Freemasons who were the architects of it's rediscovery.  I know this because I remember it coming up in Graham Hancock's The Sign and The Seal, where he was speculating on the Masons inheriting their interest in the Auxumite claim to the Ark that he believes The Templars had.

And Enoch has become an important figure in Masonic Lore, and especially in heretical Christian doctrines inserted into Christianity by Masons.  Like the Giza Pyramid being built by Enoch heresy.

I have an interesting Book of Enoch follow up here.

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